Hofmann Forest — Fortune or Infamy?


Date: 17 September 2014 (Sent); Updated 28 September 2014

To: Sent to NCSU Leadership, Foundation, Boards, and Sustainability

From: Fred Cubbage, Professor, Coordinator, Natural Resources Program /FWC/
Joseph Roise, Professor, Director of Graduate Programs, FER /JR/

Subject: Hofmann Forest Sale Legacy

Hofmann Fortune or Infamy Updated V9

See also: Hofmann Forest Sale – Financial Boon or Regional Bust?



Save Hofmann Forest advocates are proud to announce that our next protest will be held Saturday Sept 20, from 11am-noon, at Deppe Park (northeast of Jacksonville, NC on Highway 17). The public is welcome to attend, and we will have at least 200 new Save Hofmann yard signs to distribute at the event, so even if people just want to stop by and pick up a sign they are more than welcome to do so. Jessica Hult is the lead contact for the event, 252-342-0591, hadnotcreekkennel@gmail.com. The goal of the protest is to continue to draw attention to the fact that a 79,000-acre tract of public forest is being sold to private buyers, without protections and without complying with state law, and against the wishes of 11,000+ people who have signed petitions opposing the sale plan.


McCrory steps into dispute over NCSU forest sale :: WRAL.com

McCrory steps into dispute over NCSU forest sale :: WRAL.com.

Gov. Pat McCrory has stepped into a dispute over North Carolina State University’s planned sale of the 79,000-acre Hofmann Forest, requesting that the buyers allow Marines from Camp Lejeune to continue using the forest for training.


Gov. Pat McCrory on Hofmann Forest

From WCTI News:

The Republican governor met with the North Carolina Military Affairs Commission at 2:45 p.m. at MCAS Cherry Point in Havelock. The Governor created the commission in August 2013 to help address issues of need at military bases.

The governor and commission announced a number of goals and priorities at the meeting.

In reference to priority six, “Maintain Hoffman Forest as a military training area,” the Governor says he has sent a letter to the potential buyers of the land. The potential sale of Hoffman Forest by North Carolina State University has been a hot topic in Eastern Carolina, as protestors fear the sale of the undeveloped land could put it at risk for being used for commercial purposes. The forest is used for military training, and in the letter to the potential buyers, the Governor says he has requested for the land to still be used by the military for training opportunities.

Gov. McCrory visits Craven County | News – WCTI NewsChannel 12.


Our Reaction to NCSU’s Orwellian “Hofmann Facts” website

Our Reaction to NCSU’s Orwellian “Hofmann Facts” website
Ron Sutherland and Fred Cubbage
September 14, 2014

References:http://www.ncsu.edu/hofmann-facts/ (as viewed 9/14/2014), our updated timeline of Hofmann events, and our response to the new sale agreement.

Reading NCSU’s version of events on their new “Hofmann Facts” website, one would get the impression that the University has never done anything wrong, secretive, or otherwise reprehensible during their ongoing attempt to privatize Hofmann Forest, the largest tract of state-owned land in North Carolina. Mostly glaringly, they completely omit any mention of corn farmer Jerry Walker (or his daughter the Purdue alumnus), the leaked Hofmann Forest LLC/Walker prospectus, or the intensive farming and development plans that were contained therein. Nor do they devote any space to discussing the fact that they pretended to be shocked when that prospectus emerged and it revealed that the corn farmer they were signing the forest over to had in fact prepared plans for converting the land into cornfields.

NCSU also fails to mention the numerous times that various University leaders have misrepresented the truth over the past year and half with bald statements such as A. they weren’t thinking of selling Hofmann Forest outright, only an easement (emailed to faculty three days before the outright sale was announced), B. Hofmann Forest is private land (despite the letter from the Attorney General stating clearly it is owned by the State and thus not taxable), C. the Hofmann sale wasn’t imminent (told to a Judge a mere month before the sale agreement was proudly announced), D. sale opponents would like the Hofmann sale agreement when we saw it (why would we like a plan to sell the forest to a corn farmer/developer?), E. selling the forest with an easement was a strict criteria for the sale (as told to concerned alumni who wrote the University about Hofmann), F. the Hofmann sale agreement with the Walkers represented a working forest easement (not true, but told anyway to the NCSU Student Senate when they were considering opposing the sale), and G. they never said the Hofmann Forest sale would include an easement (when all else fails…). Please see our detailed Hofmann Forest timeline (updated version attached) for an accounting of many of these statements and a factual contradiction of many of the defenses NCSU attempts to raise in their misleading “Hofmann Facts” storyline.

They also seem to be pretending that the revised sale plan is somehow an intentional move by NCSU to improve the sustainability of the Hofmann Forest sale, which if true would help convince a skeptical public that progress was being made to address the grievances of sale opponents. Actually, our current understanding is that the Walkers themselves recruited RMS to step into the deal to take on the lion’s share of the property and associated financial risks, and we speculate the Walkers did so out of desperation when faced with: the ongoing wetlands investigations by the EPA, our increasingly vigorous public opposition efforts, our ongoing lawsuit headed to the NC Court of Appeals, and perhaps most importantly, the collapse of the price of corn (which has fallen by 2/3rds from its peak at the point when the Walker’s decision to purchase Hofmann Forest was made).

We would be happy to exploit the message from NCSU that the new deal is somehow more consistent with the values of the College of Natural Resources, by pointing out that this implies they are finally admitting the old deal that they signed and then defended for months truly fell far short of the criteria that were listed for the sale. But that gives the University too much credit for trying to do the right thing here, when the reality appears to be that the parties involved are panicking and the new deal is a last ditch effort to salvage the sale at a reduced price. It also gives the new deal with RMS and the Walkers too much credit for being a transcendental improvement with respect to environmental outcomes, when unfortunately that is not the case. We have prepared a separate statement addressing the inadequacies of the new sale agreement (attached).

After the Hofmann sale was announced in January 2013, Dean Watzin was asked to meet with forestry faculty and students three or four times, and did so. At no time did she ever call a College wide meeting to discuss the Hofmann and hear views, debate, or discussion. And in any emails or web posts, she always maintained that the Hofmann would be maintained as a working forest. So overall, the public input and consultation (1) consisted of 4 pretend pre-sale announcements meetings and a few post announcement meetings called by faculty, where (2) outright falsehoods about partial monetization and working forest protections were promised; and (3) massive opposition to any sale was totally ignored. In fact, the final deal of total sale to agriculture business firm with zero forest protections was NEVER mentioned by the Deans, and totally opposed by all persons at the few pretend meetings held (NOT “dozens”). So the faculty, student, and public consultation was a complete, carefully orchestrated, deceitful charade, from start to finish, where all public input was ignored, and the Foundation and Deans did not even do what they promised to do in every meeting and communication.

In terms of additional rebuttals, it is worth pointing out that the NCSU “Hofmann Facts” website raises straw man arguments by claiming that sale opponents view the forest as “pristine”, and by asserting that sale opponents were predicting that 2/3rds of the property were likely to be converted to urban developments. Under the original deal signed last October with the Walkers, it was not just likely but highly probable that 2/3rds of the forest would have been replaced by 45,000 acres of cornfields and 9000 acres of urban development. With the new sale agreement revealed this month, such an outcome is less likely perhaps but is still entirely possible given the lack of legal protections afforded to the forest.

NCSU also claims that the Hofmann Forest was not used enough to justify keeping the land, with the majority of CNR students no longer visiting the Forest. The faculty who do use the forest provided a detailed 8-page list of Hofmann uses to the Dean and NR Foundation before the sale, which was apparently not distributed before the vote to sell. Every one of the 80 or so NCSU forestry students attends classes that visit the Hofmann at some time, and many other College students visit it as well and do research there. There is even a house there just for student use. The Hofmann is the only production Forest CNR has in the Coastal Plain, where 2/3rds of the forest industry in the South is located. On the other hand, there only about 30 students who ever use the Wood Products lab on campus—the smallest minority of all CNR programs—and very few persons use the pulp mill or are in the golf program. With more than 1000 students in CNR, there is no single teaching facility that is used by a majority of CNR students with the exception of the classroom buildings themselves.

Could Hofmann Forest be used more by the University? Absolutely, but that would require full and convenient access to students and faculty from numerous departments, and enthusiasm for such use on the part of University and Foundation leaders. The reality over the past few decades has been that educational use of Hofmann Forest has been actively discouraged, by a combination of the timber company that held a long-term lease on the land and at times excluded faculty altogether, a somewhat parochial Forestry Foundation that tried to prevent its control over Hofmann from being usurped by the College, and a series of Deans of the College of Natural Resources who were scheming to sell the forest and saw little reason to invest resources into promoting the truly immense scale of usage that a 79,000-acre university field station could sustain. Despite these challenges, a number of faculty still made the concerted effort needed to keep Hofmann Forest in use for educational purposes, fulfilling as best as they could the dreams of Doc Hofmann when he purchased the forest for the benefit of the University.

NCSU also points out several times that income from the forest has declined, but fails to mention this decline is due to intense overcutting of the forest that was conducted during the recent Great Recession. During the recession the university and College endowment funds’ stock investments performed quite poorly, and leaders attempted to rely more heavily on Hofmann Forest to make up the difference. Eventually they ran out of sufficient timber to cut, and the reduction in income that inevitably followed conveniently allowed them to claim that the forest’s financial yields were declining (when actual sustainable yield estimates suggest $2 million/year could be achieved over the long-term). NCSU also forgets to mention any risk of investing the proceeds from selling the Hofmann into the very stock market whose catastrophic collapse is still so fresh in all of our minds.

NCSU’s website notes that there is an ongoing EPA review of the Hofmann—but fails to mention that the purpose of the review is to determine if the Natural Resources (NR) Foundation management violated Section 404 dredge and fill permit requirements under the Clean Water Act. So the NR Foundation could be subject to major fines, or at least have to remediate (at potentially great expense) any legal transgressions it made.

NCSU’s propaganda page does admit there is a lawsuit—which it maintains is without merit—but does not tell anybody what it is about. Our lawsuit is simple. We observe that the Hofmann Forest is State land, and that as such the university should perform an environmental analysis as required by the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). Once alternatives have been identified and the public has had a chance to review and comment on them per SEPA requirements, the University must then select a conservation-minded alternative for the forest in order to be consistent with the environmental policy so clearly stated by the NC Constitution.

The NR Foundation and the NCSU Endowment Fund have paid no property taxes on Hofmann for 80 years because they say the land is public, and the Attorney General wrote a letter in 1980 specifically stating that Hofmann was owned by the State of North Carolina (see link above, 1980). One would think these concrete facts would prevent university leaders from ever claiming that Hofmann Forest is private land, but we suppose shame is sometimes a difficult emotion to invoke in certain individuals.

The Hofmann plaintiffs include a professor, a conservationist, a local resident, a former President of the Forestry and Natural Resource Foundations, and a professor emeritus and alum who was deeply involved in the Forest hydrology. We of course should be able to provide input into the decision, and it is ironic the university is trying to prove that we cannot when they say they have had open consultation and listened to input about the sale.

The NR Foundation and NCSU also should leap at the chance to analyze the environmental impacts of the sale; that is what we say we teach in the College of Natural Resources. Repudiating the importance of environmental and social analysis is repudiating the mission of the College and University, as well as violating the State Environmental Policy Act and the NC Constitution. So by countering the lawsuit, NCSU is essentially trying to prove that what we teach is worthless if they or someone else can make more money by ignoring it. And by having their lawyers argue that the sale of the forest will result in zero damage to the natural environment, the University and Foundation are gravely insulting the expertise of large numbers of NCSU faculty (including the Dean herself!) and graduate students who could attest otherwise.

Our lawsuit simply says NCSU should follow SEPA as is required of all state agencies including the institutions of the UNC system, and we should keep and manage the world’s largest educational forest unless a thorough, open, and inclusive analysis says that we should not. The Hofmann Forest is the largest, most valuable piece of State property in North Carolina. Keep it green.


I have been silent. Now, I must say something. -Joe Cox

First, the University is insulting every degrees Forester it graduated over the years.  Essentially they are saying that they have no faith in the professionals they train and release to the world.
Second, there is no reason that they cannot keep title to the Hofmann and have an entity like RMS manage it and send the University a annual check.
Last, the University is so far down this path, they cannot back out without someone loading their job.  So, please do not look for common ground.  If the current administration keep their positions, what other grand blunder will they make?  Now is the time to stand up and shout enough is enough!
This deal is so far down the road, we may not stop it.  In spite of what happens, this is just the start of a long road to correct the wrong headed directions that became apparent to the public during this process.
So, keep up the pressure;  however, do not compromise with just a conservation easement.

Best regards,
Joe Cox

Notice:  It’s OK to print this e-mail. Paper is a plentiful, biodegradable, renewable, recyclable, sustainable product made from trees.  Producing paper and other forest products utilizes a renewable natural resource and provides jobs and income for millions of Americans.  Thanks to improved forest management, we have more trees today than we had 100 years ago!


Statement by Save Hofmann Forest Advocates

Are Save Hofmann Forest advocates happy with the new deal?
We appreciate the participation of RMS in the new Hofmann Forest sale agreement, as we think RMS decided to become involved at least in part because they also value the benefits of keeping much of Hofmann Forest intact for the benefit of the region. RMS does have a good reputation of working with conservation partners in eastern North Carolina.

However, Hofmann Forest is public land now, and the public will be losing a major forest asset if Hofmann is sold to any for-profit buyer, including RMS. The NC State University community still loses their incredible world-class educational resource that they’ve held for 80 years, and does so against the wishes of most faculty, staff, students, and alumni. And Walker Ag Group and their unknown co-investors in Hofmann Forest LLC still get 23,000 acres of Hofmann Forest in the new plan. If they are able to complete the purchase this time, we expect the Walkers to quickly pursue whatever uses for Hofmann that would return the highest yields.

We would certainly rather see RMS end up with the entire tract of land, than have the new agreement proceed (which immediately results in Doc Hofmann’s magnificent legacy being broken up into smaller pieces). But RMS is still a business and they will answer to their investors first and foremost, (not the citizens of NC) when making their decisions about what parts of the forest to resell to others who may develop, farm, mine, or otherwise disturb the land (including Walker Ag Group). It’s worth noting that nothing in the new sale agreement appears to prevent RMS from merely turning around and selling their share of the forest back to Hofmann Forest LLC to pursue the large-scale agricultural plans that were outlined in the leaked prospectus. Even worse, if RMS drops out of the deal for lack of funds or other reasons, Hofmann Forest LLC is still entitled to purchase the entire forest.

Also, consider this thought experiment: if another large tract of existing public forest (such as Croatan or Pisgah National Forest) were suddenly placed up for sale, of course we would fight such a plan tooth and nail. If the relevant government leaders then announced a new plan where only 1/4 of the forest would be destroyed for sure, and the rest only “possibly”, would anyone call that a victory for conservation? No, absolutely not, that would be a huge net loss of public forestland that citizens would find unacceptable. That is the alternative being proffered by NCSU now with their revised Hofmann sale agreement, and we continue to reject their flawed premise that some loss of public forest is a necessary outcome of this situation.

Does the new agreement affect our lawsuit to stop the sale of Hofmann Forest?
We are gravely concerned that NCSU may be trying to use this new agreement to generate media spin that the environmental impact of the sale has been mitigated or even completely avoided. Nothing could be further from the truth. First and foremost, the new agreement legally protects zero acres of the forest, just like the old agreement that was signed last October. Just like the old agreement, there is language about intentions of pursuing an easement deal with the military or other parties, but this potential easement deal is described with vague phrases such as covering “all or portions of” the area of Hofmann Forest north of US 17, and it will only take place “if an agreement or agreements satisfactory to purchaser…” can be reached.

Even if RMS keeps most of the 56,000 acres they would receive from this Hofmann deal in timber for the next 10 years, that will still leave out 10-20,000+ acres that could be immediately degraded as a direct result of this deal (12,000 acres of the Hofmann Forest LLC allotment are part of the large “Big Open” pocosin and are at the moment legally unsuitable for development or agricultural conversion, although this could change with political circumstances in Washington DC).

In particular, the ~10,000 acres of Hofmann Forest that are located close enough to US 17 to have high development value (including the 4000 acres of Block 10 and parts of Blocks 8 and 9) are at high risk of being destroyed by urban development. This acreage may be small relative to the enormous size of the entire property, but losing 10,000 acres of wildlife habitat and forested watersheds is incontrovertibly a significant environmental impact by any measure. Imagine losing a public forest twice the size of Umstead State Park! That scale of destruction is what is at stake here even in the short term if this deal is completed, and the loss of Block 10 alone would block the critical flow of wildlife between Hofmann and Camp Lejeune.

Additionally, there are no guarantees that RMS will keep the land that is further away from the highway intact over the short or long terms, their reputation notwithstanding (and the applicability of state environmental laws simply cannot be construed to hinge upon the reputation of a private for-profit business that is on the receiving end of an important governmental decision). We still don’t know for sure about the jurisdictional wetland status of most of Hofmann’s 79,000 acres, and therefore much of the forest may be open for development or agricultural conversion. Quite a few timber companies have sold substantial acreages of pine forest in the southeast to developers in recent years, and without an easement in place RMS will be tempted to do the same.

NCSU keeps making the patently absurd claim that existing County zoning laws protect Hofmann Forest from being impacted by the sale. This is their direct attempt to undercut our lawsuit, but any reasonable observer knows that zoning regulations in North Carolina are very rarely successful at stopping new development from occurring. And even with the current zoning in Onslow County (Jones County apparently has no zoning regulations!) much of the forest can already be converted to row crop agriculture, with devastating impacts on wildlife and water quality. The sale to private owners without full forest easement protection is the ultimate decision that would make Hofmann vulnerable to these changes.

Although NCSU would like the Court of Appeals to think that any impacts of the sale are speculative at best, the Court and the public should keep in mind that NCSU and the Natural Resources Foundation (the Defendants in our lawsuit) provided potential Hofmann buyers with a 9000-acre plan for urban development! This plan is what surfaced in the leaked prospectus of Hofmann Forest LLC in November of 2013. Preparing and distributing that development plan was an open admission by NCSU and the Natural Resources Foundation that considerable environmental damage was likely as a result of the Hofmann sale, and the new sale agreement does nothing to change that fact.

Certain NCSU leaders have also made the dubious claim that the Marine Corps would simply not allow Hofmann Forest to be developed. At the same time, however, they are quick to admit that Block 10 will be developed, and Block 10 is the closest part of Hofmann Forest to Camp Lejeune! As Google Maps and our own recent aerial tour of the Hofmann Forest region reveal, the Marine Corps has done little to constrain the growth of suburbs that are now encroaching around Hofmann Forest, Camp Lejeune, and Croatan National Forest. The military has apparently been encouraged for some time to purchase a conservation easement on Hofmann Forest and yet they have failed to act, most likely for lack of funds. Although we certainly hope the Marine Corps will take some action to keep large parts of Hofmann Forest undeveloped, in the end the military may simply not be able to afford to protect the most valuable parts of Hofmann Forest along US 17.

Thus the NC Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) and the NC Constitution still apply to the sale of Hofmann Forest. NCSU, which is fully aware that it is subject to SEPA (and has issued policy memos to that effect) needs to prepare a full environmental impact statement regarding the potential direct and indirect environmental damages that could be caused by the sale of Hofmann Forest, and the public should be given ample opportunity to provide comments as per SEPA requirements. Then, to comply with the NC Constitution (which Chancellor Woodson swore in his oath of office to uphold) NCSU must pursue alternatives for Hofmann Forest that are fully consistent with our State’s Constitutional policy to conserve our natural resources.

What do we want to see happen instead with Hofmann Forest?
We remain firmly convinced that the only ethically defensible and legally correct pathway forward is for NCSU to cancel the Hofmann sale until a credible Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared and alternatives that are compatible with environmental conservation have been identified and selected.

There are three alternatives that we are already well familiar with that would prevent environmental damage in this situation: (1) NCSU keeps the forest and does not sell (or only sells an easement directly), (2) NCSU sells a working forest easement directly on the entire property and then sells the forest to a buyer who would be legally restricted by the easement contract, or (3) NCSU sells the forest outright to a genuine conservation organization or government conservation agency, with a legally binding agreement that the forest will remain intact and protected. Of these options, 1 and 3 are most preferred, as the land would stay in public hands (or in the hands of a conservation organization which would very likely transfer the land back to the public anyway) and be open to enhanced public access.

If NCSU keeps the land we would like to see a permanent working forest easement sold as quickly as possible to prevent Hofmann Forest from being sold again without protection. We also want foresters, conservationists, and local stakeholders reappointed to the Natural Resources Foundation Board, which was mandated in their bylaws, and evaded in the recent attempt to sell the forest. After the sale of a working forest easement relieves some of the financial pressure on the College and the forest, the reconstituted Natural Resources Foundation Board should place a high priority on encouraging more NCSU faculty from a number of departments to use the forest, while at the same time opening the tract up for public recreation.

Option 2 could be considered as a last resort, and at that point we would welcome a respected timber company such as RMS to buy the land, but only AFTER a working forest conservation easement is in place. Even then our hope would be that the land would quickly return to public ownership once sufficient funds could be raised to repurchase the tract.

Former Raleigh Mayor Charles Meeker has made an excellent case that the State of North Carolina can and should pursue the necessary steps to keep Hofmann Forest in public ownership. If NCSU doesn’t want the land, which is by no means a true statement if you actually talk to faculty, students, staff and alumni, then the NC General Assembly should make arrangements to turn the property into a state forest, state gameland, or state park, and compensate the NCSU Endowment Fund appropriately over a period of several years. Such a move would protect water quality, enhance wildlife populations, provide generations of citizens with outdoor recreation opportunities, and buffer the important training mission at Camp Lejeune.

We would welcome the chance to sit down with NCSU, the Marine Corps, RMS, and other parties to discuss creative options for achieving one of the three alternatives we’ve outlined above. A talented and well-respected mediator could be selected to help facilitate this dialog and speed the process along towards an outcome that could achieve some level of consensus support across North Carolina, and which would meet the standards of our robust environmental laws. Hofmann Forest deserves nothing less.


New Sale Agreement for Hofmann Forest – Our Response!

Dear Friends of Hofmann Forest,

Shortly after I sent you an email last week, we found out that NCSU had negotiated a new sale agreement for Hofmann Forest. The new agreement proposes to split the property in two, with RMS (a timber company) paying $105 million for 56,000 acres, and Hofmann Forest LLC (corn farmer Jerry Walker and his co-investors) paying $25.85 million for 23,000 acres.

Later in the week, NCSU also unveiled a new website where they attempt to present their own rosy (Orwellian?) version of events related to the Hofmann Forest sale.

We have prepared several documents in response to these events, and we encourage you to read them (links below).

Here are three key facts to keep in mind about the new agreement:
1. there is still no language in the sale agreement establishing a working forest easement on Hofmann Forest, or even requiring that such an easement be established. The easement plan continues to be left to the discretion of the buyers and the military and other parties.

2. the new sale agreement does include clear language (Sections 5.3 and 5.4) allowing the entire property to be purchased by Hofmann Forest LLC (the Walkers) in the event RMS backs out of the deal at any point prior to closing. The sale agreement indicates RMS will pursue timber management on its portion of the forest, but the agreement also does not preclude RMS from immediately selling any or all of its portion of Hofmann Forest to a developer or to Walker Ag Group.

3. NCSU cannot claim that any environmental damage that could be caused by the sale is merely speculative, as NCSU and the Natural Resources Foundation are the ones who commissioned the urban development plans for Block 10 that they themselves went on to distribute to potential Hofmann buyers! (and which appeared in the leaked Hofmann Forest LLC prospectus last November).

Links to find out more:

Response to the new Hofmann Forest sale agreement 9_15_14-4

Setting the record straight on NCSU Hofmann Forest Facts-1

Timeline of Key Events Related to Hofmann Forest V10 September 14 2014


Action Items:
1. please read the documents above, and then please continue to write letters to the editor of your favorite NC newspapers pointing out the deficiencies in any plan by NC State University to sell Hofmann Forest without first evaluating the environmental impacts and letting the public have our say.
2. pat yourself on the back – thanks to your efforts, we have NCSU on the ropes on this issue and their putative buyers are getting desperate about the prospects of the sale ever happening – keep it up and we’ll win completely!
3. the events last week admittedly distracted us a bit from protest planning – but if you live in Kinston, Greenville, New Bern, Wilmington, Durham/Chapel Hill, Jacksonville, Winston Salem/Greensboro, or Raleigh, and can help with organizing any kind of rally or gathering this weekend, please respond to this email with “protest help” in the subject line. At the very least, we have hundreds of new Hofmann Forest yard signs to distribute and we would love to arrange plans for sites in each of those cities where people who still need a sign can pick one up.

Thanks for all of your help!

For the forest,

Ron Sutherland, Ph.D.
NCSU Biology ’99
Conservation Scientist
Wildlands Network