We know that what happens to Hofmann Forest matters locally and regionally, but what about internationally? There is a connection and it is the American Eel (Anguilla rostrata). What we know about eels is evolving still. Once thought to be the only catadromous fish in the US, it is now apparent that eel life is more complicated than that. That is a whole story itself and one of the reasons I have included the link below to the USFWS.
The link to Hofmann Forest is that there are American Eels in all three basins draining from Hofmann. I have caught them myself in the White Oak and Trent Rivers. Their life cycle is believed to begin with spawning in the Sargasso Sea. Somehow, as they mature through several stages, they make their way to estuarine and fresh waters. The adults live in estuarine and fresh waters and some may live primarily in one or the other, while others move between the two. The complete nature and reasons for this behavior are not known, but that it occurs makes facultative catadromy the appropriate description of American Eel behavior.
Eels make the trip from the Sargasso Sea and back only once. As adults they undergo still more remarkable changes for life in the open ocean. They return to the Sargasso Sea, breed, and are thought to die.
Eels are an important part of the marine, estuarine, and inland food webs. They are sensitive to low dissolved oxygen levels and contaminants, including those generated by non point source pollution from activities such as agriculture. So what happens in the Hofmann Forest basins has a ripple effect reaching the two million square mile Sargasso Sea and all linked waters. The extent of linked waters is great. The American Eel is thought to be one single breeding population, not distinct by location. Eels found in Greenland are not genetically distinct from those found in Brazil.
What happens in Hofmann Forest doesn’t stay in Hofmann Forest. The land use changes presented in the Hofmann, LLC, Prospectus will have a negative impact locally, regionally, and internationally, if nothing but the Atlantic Eel is considered.
Anadromous – Lives in salt water, travels to fresh water for breeding.
Catadromous – Lives in fresh water and and travels to saltwater for breeding.
Diadromous – Broader term including both anadromous and catadromous.
Facultative Catadromy – Catadromous sometimes, but not always, apparently optional.